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Back DİL BİLGİSİ GRAMMAR PRE-INTERMEDIATE Past Tense in ENGLISH / 2
Perşembe, 27 Ekim 2011 12:57

Past Tense in ENGLISH / 2

Oy ver
(2 oy)

Past Tense / I went to the cinema yesterday

Past 1

" I was a popular student. " Popüler bir öğrenciydim.

Cümleden de anlaşılacağı üzere konuşan kişi geçmişte popüler bir öğrenci olduğundan bahsediyor. Bu cümlenin geçmiş zamanda söylendiğini " was " fiilinden anlıyoruz. Daha önceki makalelerimizde " to be - am , is , are / olmak " fiilinden bahsetmiştik. " To be " fiilini past tense kalıbında iki türlü kullanıyoruz :

 

1 " am ve is " fiilinin past formu :

 

was / vaz, vız /

2 " are " fiilinin past formu :

were / vö:r /

Öznelerde kullanımı :

I was / he was / she was / it was

You were / they were / we were 

Örnekler :

was

1 He was a popular student.

2 William Wallece was a Scotish hero. He was the leader of his society.

3 William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright. Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford. Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day.

Were

1 His early plays were mainly comedies and histories.

2 They were famous for being champion in Super League for 4 times in a row.

3 Were they there ?

4 Who were the people over there ?

Negative

wasn't ( was not ), weren't ( were not )

He wasn't right.

The city was beautiful but it wasn't very big.

They weren't right.

She wasn't in the school yesterday.

They weren't in the school yesterday.

We weren't at home.

Clara and her sister weren't here a moment ago.

Question ( ? )

İngilizcede soru yapma kurallarından belki de en önemlisi yardımcı fiili başa getirmektir:

Mesela önce genel bir ifade ile soralım :

Is he a robber ? / O hırsız mı ( soyguncu mu )

Şimdi bunu Past Tense'de soralım :

Was he a robber ?

Were they famous ?

Wh soru kelimelerini ( when, where, why, what gibi ) kullanarak :

Where were you born ?

Why were you so sad yesterday ? 

Past 2

 

Düzenli ( regular ) fiilleri kullanarak  geçmişteki aksiyon, durum ve genel doğruları ( general truths )  ifade ederiz.

I called Jane yesterday.

Örnektede görüldüğü gibi fiil -ed eki getirilerek Past yapıldı. İngilizcede düzenli fiillere fiilin yapısına göre -d -ed ve ied getirerek geçmiş zaman formu yaparız.

Sonu sesli harf ile bitiyorsa -d ;

love-d / sevdi,(-sevdim, sevdin, sevdik, sevdiniz,sevdiler)

hate-d 

like-d

die-d

believe-d

live-d

dance-d

Sonuna -ed gelen fiiller :

finish-ed

talk-ed

wash-ed

watch-ed

brush-ed

enjoy-ed

call-ed

learn-ed

stay-ed

play-ed

Aşağıdaki kelimeler de -ed ile past yapılır ancak okunuşları -ıd olarak değişir. Sebebi de sonlarındaki kelimelerin sert oluşlarındandır. Bu Kelimelerin sayısı fazla değildir :

start-ed / startıd /

plant-ed / plentıd /

shout-ed / şautıd /

visit-ed / vizitıd/

-ed ile past tense yapılan ancak çift sessiz ile biten fiiller :

stop-ped

prefer-red

beg- begged

Sonu -y ile biten fiiller -ied getirilerek past yapılıyor :

copy-copied

cry-cried

try-tried

carry-carried

dry-dried

fry-fried

bury-burried

Kelimelerin cümle içinde kullanımları :

Bildiğimiz bütün öznelerde ( I -you-we-he-she-they ) past tense fiil kullanımı aynıdır.

I called Jane yesterday.( positive )

I brushed my teeth twice yesterday ( positive )

He brushed his teeth.

The police stopped our car because of exceeding the speed limit.

She worked in a shop.

We cried when we finished our ceremony. 

Negative / Didn't

 

Past tense cümleleri olumsuz yaparken yine bütün öznelerde aynı olan " didn't " ekini kullanıyoruz. Dikkat edilecek en önemli konu, didn't kullanıldığından fiil -d yada -ed ile kullanılmaz. Yani, past ifade bir defa o da olumsuzluk ekinde kullanılıyor. 

I didn't stay at home yesterday.

She didn't help her friend.

I didn't walk to school because I was so tired.

We didn't finish our job so that the boss got very angry.

He didn't enjoy the film.

Question ( ?)

 

Did you finish your homework ?

Did she stay at home ?

Yine soru yapıldığında fiil yalın hali ile kullanıldı.

Past 3

Düzensiz ( irregular ) fiiller.

İngilizcede belkide öğrenenleri en fazla zorlayan kelimelerdir. Bu kelimeler, kendi yalın halinin dışında farklı bir şekle büründüklerinden okunması ve ezberlenmesi zor gibi görünmektedir. Ancak normal Intermediate seviyede Irregular Verb sayısı 100' ü geçmemekte. Bu dersin videosunda bunların bir kısmını göreceğiz. Diğer bölümler ise conquerenglish.com intermediate sayfasında. Şimdi esas fiillerin 2. hallerini görelim.

be - was, were / olmak, var olmak, bulunmak

become - became / olmak , haline gelmek

begin - began

break - broke

bring - brought

buy - bought

come -came

catch- caught

do - did

eat - ate

fall- fell

forgive- forgave

get - got

give -gave

go -went

have- had

hear- heard

know- knew

leave- left

make -made

pay -paid

put - put

say - said

tell- told

think- thought

understand- understood

Cümle kullanımları :

Irregular fiillerle cümle yaparken yine fiiller bütün öznelerde aynı kullanılır, değişmez

I made a cake yesterday.

I didn't make a cake yesterday.

Did you make a cake ?

Did you get up early yesterday ?

You didn't sing a song.

He told his new opinion to his brother .

Past 4

Zaman Kavramları :

ago - önce

He came 5 minutes ago.

yesterday / dün 

He got up late yesterday. Dün geç kalktı.

 

at / de- da

He ate his lunch at 1.00.

in / de-da, içinde

He lived in İzmir in 1990.

He came to İzmir in June.

on / günlerde

He came here on Monday.

last / geçen

He went to Spain last summer./ year / week

Son değişiklik Cumartesi, 29 Ekim 2011 10:33

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