Choose the correct answers to the following questions by reading the passages.
EDUCATION IN BRITAIN
Education in Britain is primarily the responsibility of local educational authorities although the central government lays down guidelines and provides or withholds money. From the end of the Second Word War until the 1960s, education under state control depended on the ’11-plus’ examination, taken by all pupils between the ages of eleven and twelve. The most successful went to grammar schools or direct-grant schools, while the rest went to secondary modern schools. Since the 1960s, almost all local authorities have introduced comprehensive schools, where all pupils attend the same school, even though there is usually an attempt to separate them according to ability once they are there. Local authorities where the Labour Party is usually in control tend, by now, to be almost completely comprehensive; those where the Conservatives hold power have been more resistant to the change.
Throughout this period, the public schools, which are private in all except name, have continued to exist, independent of the state system. Some became direct-grant schools, accepting students who had passed the 11-plus examination and were paid for by local authorities, but this system came to an end in many cases when a Labour-controlled local authority refused to go on paying the grants because of its commitment to comprehensive education.
The public debate in England and Wales between the supporters of comprehensive schools and those who want to retain or revive grammar schools continues unabated. Every year statistics are produced to demonstrate that comprehensive schools provide better education than grammar schools (and in some cases, better than the prestigious private sector). These statistics are immediately contradicted by others proving the opposite. The local authorities have, on the whole, been converted to the comprehensive system, in some cases with enthusiasm, in others with marked reluctance. Yet, the real complication of the debate stems from the fact that although arguments are usually stated in educational terms, almost all of them are based on political opinions.
It is clear that those local authorities that have abolished grammar schools completely were determined that their experiment should succeed because of their belief that it is just as wrong to separate children by intelligence as by social class. Such authorities tend to associate grammar schools with the private sector, which they would also like to abolish if they had the opportunity. In their view, any system that differentiates between children strengthens class barriers, and the fact that more upper-class children tend to go to university is not evidence that comprehensive schools are inferior; it is merely further evidence of the discrimination that already exists in society.
The defender of grammar schools use examination results to show that children reach their maximum potential when placed with others of similar intelligence and point out that even there in comprehensive schools they are put in different classes according to ability. It is difficult to believe, however, that this difference is inspired purely by a desire for academic excellence.
21. Which students were sent to modern secondary schools until the 1960s?
a)all pupils between the ages of eleven and twelve
b)less successful pupils in the “11-plus” examination
d)pupils over the age of 13
22. What does “attend” mean in paragraph 1?
23. What does “them” refer to in paragraph 1?
24. Which type of school is favored by the conservatives?
25. What does “contradict” mean in paragraph 3?
26. Why did local authorities abolish grammar school?
a)They don’t trust the intentions of the private sector.
b)They had no specific reasons.
c)They thought grammar schools cannot provide a good education.
d)They believe it is wrong to separate children by intelligence and by social class
27.What does “it” refer to in paragraph 4?
a)that more upper-class children tend to go to university
b)that comprehensive schools are inferior
c)any system that differentiates between children
28.It can be understood from the text that …………….
a)Students shouldn’t be put in different classes according to ability in grammar schools.
b)The central government decides the system of education.
c)Local authorities have great impact on education system.
d)Local authorities have abolished private sector
WHAT’S IN A NAME
Creap coffee creamer is a big seller in Japan, and Bimbo bread is extremely popular in Mexico, but people in English-speaking countries would be unlikely to buy these products. Why? Because their names have unfortunate meanings in English. As companies go global, it is becoming increasingly important to find brand names that can travel from country to country.
According to Bridget Ruffell, a director of The Brand Naming Co., which specializes in creating brand names for clients, finding the right name for an international brand is expensive, time-consuming and full of difficulties. In addition to the problems of meaning and pronunciation, all names have to be legally registered, which involves long and expensive searches to make sure that they have not already been taken by another company.
Finding the right product name and avoiding the wrong ones is so important that The Brand Naming Co. has created a “black museum” of products with names that make them virtually unsellable in English-speaking countries. For instance, there’s “Nuclear”, a brand of clothes whitener in Spain. The Brand Naming Co. also cautioned about a Turkish cookie called “Bum” and a Mexican beer called “Nude”, although consumers in Ankara and Mexico City told they had never heard of those products.
Companies from English-speaking countries that want to sell their products in non-English-speaking countries also have a lot of problems finding good product names. The sounds R and L, for instance, are often confused among some speakers of Asian languages. Jonathan Mercer, managing director of Brand Guardians, a firm that specializes in creating brand names, said companies have to be careful to avoid names with unsuitable meanings.
One of the most famous stories about a brand-naming problem involves an American car. The marketing department of Chevrolet decided to name their new car “Nova”. They thought that they’d found a good name. “Nova” means “star” in Latin. However, in Spanish, the two words no va mean “doesn’t go”, which is not a very good name for a car.
There is more than one way to find a name for a new product. Sometimes, to avoid the problems that choosing a real word might cause, companies actually make up a word that (they hope) does not exist in any language. One very successful made up name is “Kodak”. It was chosen because it is pronounceable by people who speak many different languages. However, even when a company invents a name, it can still have name problems. For example, a number of years ago, Esso Oil Company wanted a new name for their gasoline that would be acceptable all over the world. After spending a lot of time and even more money, they came up with “Exxon”. Unfortunately, it didn’t work well in Japan. The Japanese pronounce it “Eki-son”, which sounds like the Japanese phrase meaning “loss of profit”.
Because English is now a global language, companies sometimes choose to use simple English words that describe their new product. A well-known example of this kind of naming technique is the “Walkman”. The Sony company chose this name for its personal stereo because it describes the product- you can use it to walk and listen to music at the same time.
It can take a long time to find the right name for a new product. First, a company hires a group of creative people to brainstorm a list of possible names. This list may have as many as 100 names on it. Then they often ask consumers to choose the names that they like the best. This technique can have surprising results. A few years ago a French publishing company was going to publish a new series of English-Language text books. Until they could think of a name for the series, they called it “Method Orange” (like calling a product “Brand X). When the publishers sent their list of possible names to consumers, one of them added this name to the list. To everyone’s surprise, it was the most popular name chosen by the consumers, and the series “Method Orange” was born.
When a company has found a name that consumers seem to like, the naming process is still not over. They must then research the name to make sure that it is not the name of another product. They usually choose the best three or four names so that they can be certain of finding one that works. This research takes a long time because each name must be researched in every country. For example, if you wanted to name a laundry detergent “Fresh”, in addition to searching the names of laundry soap in each country, you would also have to look at the names of other types of products that you think might have that name. A search can cost $500 per name per country.
29.According to the text, deciding on the suitable name for an international brand …
a)requires company managers to travel from country to country
b)involves short and cheap searches
c)takes a lot of time and money
d)is only handled by brand naming companies
30.“Black museum” mentioned in paragraph 3 is probably …
a)the group of products which sell a lot in English-speaking countries
b)a museum in England which exhibits products with unsuitable names
c)the name of a brand naming company
d)the list of products which do not sell much because of their names
31. Which of the following brand names does not have a good meaning in English?
32.Which of the following brand names has an unsuitable meaning in one of the non-English-speaking countries?
33. The example of the brand name “Exxon” , which was invented by Esso Oil Company, shows that …
a)even when a brand name is made up, it can still cause problems
b)having an invented brand name avoids all the problems in naming a product
c)selling of gasoline does not provide high profits in far eastern countries like Japan
d)choosing simple brand names can be very effective in advertising
34. Which of the following is not one of the steps that companies go through to name a product?
a) getting the consumers’ ideas about their favorite names
b)making sure that they are not using the name of another product
c)checking some English-language text books with a list of brand names
d)employing people with creative ideas
35. We can infer from paragraph 8 that …
a)The best way to name a product is to make up a new name
b)Orange language text books attract the English learners more
c)A simple English phrase can make an effective product
d)Some products may have negative meanings in English
36. What is the main idea of this text?
a)Because English is a global language, it is better to choose simple English names for products
b)English speaking countries do not want to buy the products whose names have a negative meaning
c)There is more than one way to find a name for a new product
d)Choosing the right name for an international product is expensive, time-consuming and difficult
37. “they” in paragraph 2 refers to…
a)meaning and pronunciation
d)long and expensive searches
38. “it” in paragraph 6 refers to…
a)Esso Oil Company
b)the name “Eki-son”
c)the name “Exxon”
39. “caution” in paragraph 3 most probably means …
40. “hire” in paragraph 8 probably means…
The answer Key
Reading Part / A