Direct and Indirect Speech (Reported Speech)

When we want to convey what someone else has said or expressed, we use two methods: Direct and Indirect Speech.

For example, if John says, “I like swimming”:

  1. Direct Speech: “I like swimming,” John said.
  2. Indirect Speech: John said he liked swimming.

Let’s look at more examples:

  1. Direct Speech: “I love you,” Michael said.
  2. Indirect Speech: Michael said he loved her.
  3. Direct Speech: “We are meeting in our office,” Lis said.
  4. Indirect Speech: Lis said they were meeting in their office.

Here are some tense and modal verb changes when reporting speech:

  • am / is / are → was / were
  • takes → took
  • took → had taken
  • is taking → was taking
  • have taken → had taken

Modal verbs change as follows when reported:

  • can → could
  • will → would
  • may → might
  • must → had to
  • should → should
  • would → would
  • could → could
Scroll to Top