1 Indefinite article ( a, an ) 

 a bag, a plane , a dog

an apple, an orange , an umbrella

There is a bicycle in front of the door.

2 definite article ( the ) : 

The boy in jeans is my friend.

The bicycle is John’s.

3 Demonstratives 

This / these

  • This T-shirt is mine.
  • I am flying to London this Monday.
  • This house was built in 1990.
  • “Lisa, this is Mary.”
  • These are my books.

that / those

  • That man over there is our boss.
  • That year was the best.
  • We are establishing a school in September. That’s wonderful.
  • “This is Jane. Who’s that ? “

4 A lot of / many / much / ( a ) few / (a ) little

A lot of  / lots of 

There are a lot o people in the stadium. He has got lots of friends in the city.


Are there many dogs in the park? There aren’t many people in the mall now.

There aren’t many tickets left for the match.


There isn’t much sugar in the kitchen.

I don’t know how much money we spent.

He is eating too much.

She is so much aggressive to his friends that nobody wants to chat with her.

A few ( a  small number, some ) 

We have a few cakes left in the fridge.

few ( not many ).

Few people are allowed to meet the President.

a little ( a small amount )

We have a little sugar.


I know little about him.

Not : Many, much, few, little

She lent so many of her books to me.


I have some cherries left.

There is someone near the door.

Would you like something to eat ?


Are there any sugar left ? .

Is there any salt ?

You can get anything you want.

Don’t talk to anyone in the street.


Every student has to complete the form.


There are no salt left.

There is  no news from the group.

He did nothing to help me. (” He didn’t do nothing “)


John and Janet are students. ( They are both students )They are both from London.


All the students joined the chess tournament.


Are there any strawberry left ? No, none.

None of

None of us know ( s ) how to play chess.

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