Present Perfect Tense: Usage and Time Expressions
Usage: The Present Perfect tense doesn’t have a direct equivalent in Turkish. It is used sometimes for past actions, and other times for actions that have relevance to the present.
In the Present Perfect tense, “have” or “has” is used along with the past participle (V3) of the verb:
- I have finished my project.
- They have moved to Izmir.
- Jack has eaten his lunch.
In the negative form of the Present Perfect tense:
|He-She-It||has eaten the cake||has not eaten the cake|
|I-You-We-They||have eaten the cake||have not eaten the cake|
Usage of Present Perfect Tense:
a) When expressing a past action with an unspecified time:
I have washed my hands. (My hands are clean now!)
Have you ever eaten pasta yet? (Have you ever eaten pasta?)
b) When talking about an action that started in the past and continues to the present:
I have been here since 9:10. (I am still here.)
They have been teachers for 15 years.
I have had this car for 11 years.
I haven’t seen my aunt since 1997.
SINCE: Used for actions that started in the past and continue up to the present:
I have had this old car since 1999.
FOR: Used for actions that started in the past and continue for a specific period:
I have had this old car for 10 years.
Time Expressions with SINCE:
I have been in this town since Sunday, July 1999, June 20, 1990, the beginning of this year, yesterday, last week.
Time Expressions with FOR:
I have been in this town for five minutes, two hours, ten days, about six years, several weeks, many years, a long time, years.
ALREADY: Used to indicate that an action has been completed:
You don’t need to go to the post office. I have already posted the letters.
YET: Used to indicate an action not yet completed, often with a future possibility:
It’s 5:00 pm and I am very hungry. I haven’t eaten my dinner yet.
JUST: Used to indicate an action that was completed a short time ago:
No, thanks. I have just eaten a cake.